Thursday, May 8, 2014


General Alex Dumas, is a man almost unknown today, yet his story is strikingly familiar—because his son, the novelist Alexandre Dumas, used his larger-than-life feats as inspiration for such classics as The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers. But, hidden behind General Dumas's swashbuckling adventures was an even more incredible secret: he was the son of a black slave woman from Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and a renegade French aristocrat—who rose higher in the white world than any man of his race would before our own time.
Portrait of a Hunter in a Landscape, attributed to Louis Gauffier (1762-1801), is said to be a portrait of General Dumas.

Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, also known as Alexandre Dumas, (25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) was a general in Revolutionary France; he is the highest-ranking person of color of all time in a continental European army. He was the first person of color in the French military to become brigadier general, the first to become divisional general, and the first to become general-in-chief of a French army. Dumas shared the status of the highest-ranking black officer in the Western world only with Toussaint Louverture (who in May 1797 became the second black general-in-chief in the French military) until 1975, when the American Daniel "Chappie" James Jr became a four star General in the United States Air Force, the closest American equivalent of Général d'Armée, Dumas' highest rank.
TIME magazine called The Black Count "one of those quintessentially human stories of strength and courage that sheds light on the historical moment that made it possible." It is also a heartbreaking story of the enduring bonds of love between a father and son.
The true story of Alex Dumas was itself ruthlessly suppressed by his greatest enemy (General Napoleon Bonaparte)—and remained buried for 200 years. Alexandre whose uncle was a rich, hard-working planter who dealt sugar and slaves out of a little cove on the north coast called Monte Cristo—but his father, Antoine, neither rich nor hard-working, was the eldest son. In 1775, Antoine sailed to France to claim the family inheritance, pawning his black son into slavery to buy passage. Only after securing his title and inheritance did he send for the boy, who arrived on French soil late in 1776, listed in the ship’s records as “slave Alexandre.”

Gen. Alexandre Dumas, the son of a black slave who led more than 50,000 men at the height of the French Revolution and then stood up to the megalomaniacal Corsican (Napoleon Bonaparte) in the deserts of Egypt. (The "famous" Alexandre Dumas is the general's son – the author of The Three Musketeers.) Letters and eyewitness accounts show that Napoleon came to hate Dumas not only for his stubborn defense of principle but for his swagger and stature – over six feet tall and handsome as a matinee idol – and for the fact that he was a black man idolized by the white French army. Painting by Olivier Pichat

In his 2012 bestselling biographic and serial award-winning novel "The Black Count: Glory, Revolution, Betrayal, and the Real Count of Monte Cristo"  Tom Reiss writes "At 16, he moved with his father, now a marquis, to Paris, where he was educated in classical philosophy, equestrianism, and swordsmanship. But at 24, he decided to set off on his own: joining the dragoons at the lowest rank, he was stationed in a remote garrison town where he specialized in fighting duels. The year was 1786. When the French Revolution erupted three years later, the cause of liberty, equality, and fraternity gave him his chance. As a German-Austrian army marched on Paris in 1792 to reimpose the monarchy, he made a name for himself by capturing a large enemy patrol without firing a shot. He got his first officer’s commission at the head of a band of fellow black swordsmen, revolutionaries called the Legion of Americans, or simply la Légion Noire. In the meantime, he had met his true love, an innkeeper’s daughter, while riding in to rescue her town from brigands."

The enlistment roll-book for the 6th Regiment of the Queen's Dragoons, which Dumas joined in 1786, described him as "6 feet tall, with frizzy black hair and eyebrows... oval face, and brown skinned, small mouth, thick lips." According to the earliest known published description of him (1797), he was “one of the handsomest men you could ever meet. [...] His frizzy hair recalls the curls of the Greeks and Romans.” It described his face as "something closer to ebony" than to "bronze." ” Elsewhere General Dumas has been described as “dark — very dark.
At the age of 32 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the French army in the Alps, the equivalent of a four-star general. The young general from the tropics led 53,000 men in fierce glacier fighting against the best alpine troops in the world and captured the mountain range for France in their Second Italian Campaign against the Austrian Empire. (Not content with overthrowing their own rulers, the French revolutionaries had declared a “war of liberation” on all their neighbors.) And though the Austrians nicknamed him der schwarze Teufel—“the Black Devil” or "Diable Noir" in French—he was an angel to victims of oppression, no matter their side: in the midst of the Revolution’s bloody chaos, he pushed back against those committing terror, earning the mocking nickname “Mr. Humanity” and narrowly escaping the guillotine himself. "The French – notably Napoleon – nicknamed him "the Horatius Cocles of the Tyrol" (after a hero who had saved ancient Rome) for single-handedly defeating a squadron of enemy troops at a bridge over the Eisack River in Clausen (today Klausen, or Chiusa, Italy)."
Dumas’s incredible ascendancy as a black man through the white ranks of the French army reflected a key turning point in the history of slavery and race relations as forgotten as Dumas himself: a single decade when revolutionary France ended slavery and initiated the integration of its army, its government, and even its schools. General Dumas was “a living emblem of the new equality,” wrote a nineteenth-century French historian—but his career’s tragic unraveling reflected the unraveling of that progress as well.
The agent of destruction for both was his fellow general, Napoleon, who at first praised Dumas as a Roman hero for his battlefield feats but came to loathe him for his independence and revolutionary values. The two men clashed in 1798, during the invasion of Egypt—where the Egyptians mistook the towering Dumas for the leader of the French forces. Then, while Dumas languished for two years in an enemy dungeon, Napoleon made himself dictator and dismantled France’s post-racial experiment, imposing cruel race laws in France, re-instituting slavery in the colonies, and sending an invasion force to Saint-Domingue with orders to kill or capture any black who wore an officer’s uniform. He went to equally extraordinary lengths to bury the memory of Alex Dumas, thundering, “I forbid you to ever speak to me of that man!” when former comrades tried to intervene on behalf of the general and his family, who were living in near-destitution. Barely five years after his return to France, Dumas died at 43 of stomach cancer, likely an aftereffect of his poisoning while imprisoned.
Alexandre Dumas, son of General Thomas Alexandre Dumas and  one of France's most widely read authors of all time. He penned  The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne:

Dumas’s son, the future novelist and one of France's most widely read authors of all time, would take a marvelous sort of revenge, infusing his father’s life and spirit into fictional characters who have been embraced the world over. Yet while every generation has heaped glory on the name Alexandre Dumas, the great general has remained forgotten. The only statue of him—in a country awash in marble generals—was erected in Paris more than a hundred years after his death, and then destroyed by the Nazis.
The general’s grandson, Alexandre Dumas, fils, would become one of France's most celebrated playwrights of the second half of the nineteenth century. Another grandson, Henry Bauër, who was never recognized by the novelist Dumas, was a prominent left-leaning theater critic in the same period. The General's great-grandson, Gérard Bauër, son of Henry Bauër, was also an accomplished writer in the twentieth century. A great-great-grandson, Alexandre Lippmann (grandson of the playwright Dumas fils), was a two-time gold medalist in fencing at the 1908 and 1924 Olympic games (he won silver in 1920).

General Dumas` Full Biography
General Alex Dumas was born on 25 March 1762 in Jérémie, Saint-Domingue (today Haiti). His baptismal name was Thomas-Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie.  Alex`s father was a French nobleman, the Marquis Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie (Antoine) and and his mother was Marie-Cessette Dumas (his father`s black African slave) from La Guinodée, Saint-Domingue.
Alexandre Dumas, a general in Revolutionary France; he is the highest-ranking person of color of all time in a continental European army.

Gen Alex Dumas` father Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, was born in 1714. He was the oldest of three sons of the Marquis Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie (1674-1758) and Jeanne-Françoise Paultre, (or Pautre) de Dominon (died 1757). The Davy de la Pailleteries were provincial Norman aristocrats whose wealth was in decline. The family had acquired the title of "lords" (seigneurs) by 1632. The French kingdom granted the title "marquis" to the family by 1708.
Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie ("Antoine") had two younger brothers, Charles Anne Edouard (Charles) born in 1716, and Louis François Thérèse (Louis) born in 1718. All three were educated at a military school and pursued careers as officers in the French military. They first served during the War of Polish Succession. Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, who reached the rank of colonel, notably saw action at the Siege of Philippsburg in 1734.

General Alex Dumas` Father`s Career in Saint-Domingue
In 1732, Antoine’s younger brother Charles had been given a military posting in Saint-Domingue, a French colony in the Caribbean that generated high revenues from its sugar cane plantations, worked by African slave labor. In 1738, Charles left the military to become a sugar planter in that colony; he married Anne-Marie Tuffé, a rich local French Creole widow, and took over her estate.
That year Antoine also left the Army and joined his brother and his wife in Saint-Domingue. He lived with them and worked at the plantation until 1748. After the two brothers quarrelled violently, Antoine left Charles's plantation, taking his three personal slaves.
At that point Antoine broke off contact with his brother and his family for a period of thirty years. During that time, Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie purchased the slave woman Marie-Cessette "for an exorbitant price" and took her as a concubine. In 1762, she gave birth to their mixed-race son Thomas-Alexandre. During her time with Antoine, she also had three daughters with him. (Some accounts say two.) The French colonist made a living in Jérémie, Saint-Domingue as a coffee and cacao planter, under the assumed name of "Antoine de l'Isle."
When the brothers’ parents, the Marquise Jeanne-Françoise and the Marquis Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, died in 1757 and 1758, respectively, Charles returned to Normandy to claim the title Marquis and the family château. The British blockade of French shipping during the Seven Years' War reduced Charles' income from sugar exports, so he tried to smuggle the commodity out of Saint-Domingue from his plantation. He used a wharf in the neutral border territory (and tiny island) of Monte Cristo (today Monte Christi, Dominican Republic). (Some historians argue that this Monte Cristo was the "real" island that inspired Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo). Charles died of gout in 1773; Louis, the youngest of the Davy de la Pailleterie brothers, died three months later. He had served a 15-day sentence for being involved in selling defective weapons to the French military (a famous scandal at the time known as the Invalides Trial (le procès des Invalides)

General Dumas` Mother
Marie-Cessette Dumas — described as a "great matriarch to a saga of distinguished men" was a slave and concubine of African descent owned by the Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie. They resided together at a plantation called La Guinaudée (or Guinodée), near Jérémie (formerly in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, now Haiti) until shortly before Antoine's departure in 1775. He sold Marie-Cessette Dumas, their other two children, and her daughter by another man to a baron from Nantes before leaving Saint-Domingue.
The only source for her full name, "Marie-Cessette Dumas," with that spelling, is General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas's later marriage certificate and contract. Her grandson's memoir gave her name as Louise, and another source recorded Cécile. Sources have spelling variations of her name, as standardization was not common at the time. Some scholars have suggested that "Dumas" was not a surname for Marie-Cessette, but, meaning "of the farm" (du mas), was added to her first names to signify that she belonged to the property. Others have suggested African origins of the names Cessette and Dumas, including Gabon, Yoruba or Dahomey.
The two extant primary documents that state a racial identity for Marie-Cessette Dumas refer to her as a “négresse” (a black female) as opposed to a “mulâtresse” (a female of mixed race).
Secondary sources on General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, dating back to 1822, almost always describe his mother as a black African (“femme africaine”, “négresse,” “négresse africaine,” “noire,” or “pure black African.”
Sources differ on the date and circumstance of her death. Two documents signed by Alexandre Dumas – his contract and certificate of marriage to Marie-Louise Labouret – state that Marie-Cessette died in La Guinaudée, near Trou Jérémie, Saint-Domingue, in 1772. Based on this death date, Victor Emmanuel Roberto Wilson speculates that she may have died in the mass outbreak of dysentery following a hurricane that struck principally the Grand Anse region of Saint-Domingue that year.
Two other documents attest that Marie-Cessette was alive after 1772: a letter recounting her sale in 1775 and an 1801 document signed by Dumas, saying that “Marie-Cezette” will be in charge of General Dumas’s properties in Saint-Domingue.
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas may have earlier claimed that she had died in order to avoid having to get her approval before marriage and revealing her slave status. In addition, he was in a hurry to leave for the military front.

Early life
Thomas-Alexandre had two siblings by his parents: Adolphe and Jeannette. They also had an older half-sister, Marie-Rose, born to Marie-Cessette before Davy de la Pailleterie purchased her and began their relationship. His father sold Marie-Cessette and her other three children before arranging to take Thomas-Alexandre with him to France.
In 1776 when Alexandre was fourteen years old, his father sold the boy for 800 French livres in Port-au-Prince, officially to a Lieutenant Jacques-Louis Roussel (but unofficially to a Captain Langlois). This sale (with right of redemption) provided both a legal way to have Alexandre taken to France with Langlois and a temporary loan to pay for his father's passage. The boy accompanied Captain Langlois to Le Havre, France, arriving on August 30, 1776, where his father bought him back and freed him.
From his arrival in France until Autumn 1778, Alexandre (then using the name Thomas Retoré) first lived with his father at the Davy de la Pailleterie family estate in Belleville-en-Caux, Normandy. After his father sold that estate in 1777, they moved to a townhouse on the rue de l'Aigle d'Or in the Parisian suburb of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. There, Alexandre studied at the academy of Nicolas Texier de La Boëssière, where he was given the higher education of a young nobleman of the time. At this school, he learned swordsmanship from the Chevalier de Saint-Georges, another mixed-race man from the French Caribbean.
Flush with cash from the sale of his family estate, Davy de la Pailleterie for many years spent lavishly on Dumas. His notary said wrote that the boy "cost him enormously." From 1777 to 1786, from age 15 to 24, thanks to his father's wealth and generosity, Dumas lived a life of considerable leisure.
In 1784, at age 22, Alexandre moved to an apartment on Rue Etienne, near the Louvre Palace in Paris, socializing at venues such as the Palais-Royal and Nicolet's Theater. In September 1784, while seated at Nicolet's Theater in the company of "a beautiful Creole" woman, he and his companion were harassed by a white colonial naval officer, Jean-Pierre Titon de Saint-Lamain, and one or two others. Following Dumas's verbal protests, the men "tried to force him to kneel before his attacker and beg for his freedom." The police report on the incident shows that Titon chose not to press charges as he might have, and all participants were released.

Military career
Enlistment and service in the Queen's Dragoons
In February 1786 his father Davy de la Pailleterie married Françoise Retou, a domestic servant from the Davy de la Pailleterie estate. Dumas did not sign as witness to the marriage contract. According to his son's memoir, the marriage precipitated a "cooling off" which led the father to tighten Dumas's allowance.
Soon after, Dumas decided to join the French Army, a common occupation for gentlemen. Unlike his noble peers, who took arms as commissioned officers, Dumas enlisted as a private. A 1781 rule enabled men who could show four generations of nobility on their father's side to qualify to be commissioned as officers. Dumas had this, but the French race laws "made it hard for a man of mixed race to claim his rightful title or noble status.") According to the novelist Dumas's account, on hearing of Alexandre's plan, his father insisted that his son take a "nom de guerre" in order that he not drag the noble name "through the lowest ranks of the army." He signed up for the 6th Regiment of the Queen's Dragoons as "Alexandre Dumas" on June 2, 1786; 13 days later, his father died.
Dumas spent his first years in the Queen's Dragoons in the provincial town of Laon, Picardy, close to the border with the Austrian Netherlands. On August 15, 1789, following the beginning of the French Revolution, his unit was sent to the small town of Villers-Cotterêts. The town's newly formed National Guard leader, innkeeper Claude Labouret, had called for them to come in response to a wave of rural violence known as the Great Fear. Dumas lodged at the Labourets' Hôtel de l'Ecu for four months, during which time he became engaged to Claude Labouret's daughter Marie-Louise.
Dumas' regiment was in Paris on July 17, 1791, where they served as riot police along with National Guard units under the Marquis de Lafayette during the Champ de Mars Massacre of the French Revolution. Troops killed between 12 and 50 people when a large crowd gathered to sign a petition calling for the removal of the French king. When, two years later, someone denounced Dumas to the Committee of Public Safety, he claimed that his intervention in the conflict had saved as many as 2,000 people from massacre.
A corporal by 1792, Dumas had his first combat experience was in a French attack on the Austrian Netherlands in April of that year. He was one of 10,000 men under the command of the General Biron. Stationed on the Belgian frontier in the town of Maulde, on August 18, 1792 Dumas captured 12 enemy soldiers while leading a small scouting party of 4 to 8 horsemen.
In October 1792, Dumas accepted a commission as lieutenant colonel in (and second-in-command of) the Légion franche des Américains et du Midi, founded a month earlier by Julien Raimond. This was a "free legion" (i.e., formed separately from the regular army) composed of free men of color (gens du couleur libre). It was variously called the "American Legion," the "Black Legion," or the Saint-George Legion, after its commanding officer, the Chevalier de Saint-George, Dumas' former instructor in swordsmanship. The young officer Dumas frequently commanded the legion, as Saint-George was often absent from duty. In April 1793, General Dumouriez attempted a coup d'état; Saint-George and Dumas refused to join it and defended the city of Lille from coup supporters. In the summer of 1793, Saint-George was accused of misusing government funds, and the Legion was disbanded.
On July 30, 1793, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in the Army of the North. One month later, he was promoted again, to general of division. In September, he was made commander-in-chief of the Army of the Western Pyrenees. In this brief assignment (September–December 1793), Dumas' headquarters were in Bayonne, France, where (according to his son's memoirs), he was nicknamed "Mr. Humanity" (Monsieur de l'Humanité) by local sans-culottes; they wanted to intimidate him to conform to their political line at a time when French generals were extremely vulnerable to accusations of treason that often led to execution.
On December 22, 1793, Dumas was given command of the Army of the Alps. His campaign in the Alps centered on defeating Austrian and Piedmontese troops defending the glacier-covered Little Saint Bernard Pass at Mont Cenis, on the French-Piedmont border. After months of planning and reconnaissance from his base in Grenoble, he had to wait for snow conditions to be favorable to his troops' passage. In April and May 1794, Dumas launched several assaults on Mont Cenis. In the final attack, Dumas's army, equipped with ice crampons, took the mountain by scaling ice cliffs and captured between 900 and 1,700 prisoners.
Though his victory won Dumas praise from political leaders in Paris, he was called before the Committee of Public Safety in the June of 1794, for reasons unspecified but probably to face charges of treason, as this was the period of the "Great Terror," a period of accelerated political executions in the final months of the Reign of Terror period of the French Revolution. Dumas delayed his arrival in Paris until mid-July, and was lucky enough not to be seen by the Committee before the Terror ended with the execution of Robespierre on July 27, 1794.
In early August 1794 Dumas was briefly assigned (for two weeks) to command the Ecole de Mars military school (fr:Ecole de Mars) at Neuilly-sur-Seine near Paris. He was reassigned to lead the Army of the West from August to October 1794. In this position, he was responsible for consolidating the recent government victory over a massive insurgency in the region of the Vendée against the French revolutionary government. He focused on increasing military discipline and eliminating soldiers' abuses of the local population. One historian, despite or because of his pro-royalist sentiments, would characterize Dumas in this command as "fearless and irreproachable," a leader who "deserves to pass into posterity and makes a favorable contrast with the executioners, his contemporaries, whom public indignation will always nail to the pillory of History!”
In September 1795 Dumas served under General Jean Baptiste Kléber in the Army of the Rhine. He participated in the French attack on Düsseldorf, where he was wounded.
General Dumas joined the Army of Italy in Milan in November 1796, serving under the orders of its commander-in-chief, Napoleon Bonaparte. Tension between the two generals began in this period, as Dumas resisted Napoleon's policy of allowing French troops indiscriminately to expropriate local property. In December 1796, Dumas was put in charge of a division besieging Austrian troops at the city of Mantua. By Christmas he had intercepted a spy carrying a message to the Austrian commander with important tactical information. On January 16, 1797, Dumas and his division halted an Austrian attempt to break out of the besieged city and prevented Austrian reinforcements from reaching Mantua. The French were thereby able to maintain the siege until French reinforcements could arrive, leading to the city's capitulation on February 2, 1797.
Following the January 16 fighting, Dumas felt insulted by the description of his actions in a battle report by General Berthier, Bonaparte's aide-de-camp, and wrote a letter to Napoleon cursing Berthier. Dumas was subsequently omitted from mention in Napoleon's battle report to the Directory, France's government at the time. He was then given a command well beneath his rank, leading a subdivision under General Masséna, despite a petition from Dumas' troops attesting to his valor. Under General Masséna in February 1797, Dumas helped French troops push the Austrians northward, capturing thousands of them. It was in this period that Austrian troops began calling him the der schwarze Teufel ("Black Devil", or Diable Noir in French).
In late February 1797, Dumas was transferred to a division commanded by General Joubert, who specifically requested Dumas out of admiration for his republicanism. Under Joubert, Dumas led a small force that defeated several enemy positions along the Adige River. Dumas' crowning achievement in this period came on March 23, when the general single-handedly drove back an entire squadron of Austrian troops at a bridge over the Eisack River in Clausen (today Klausen, or Chiusa, Italy). It was this feat for which the French began referring to Dumas as "the Horatius Cocles of the Tyrol" (after a hero who had saved ancient Rome). Napoleon called Dumas by this nickname, and rewarded him by making him cavalry commander of all French troops in the Tyrol; he also sent Dumas a pair of pistols. Dumas spent much of 1797 as military governor, administering the province of Treviso, north of Venice.
Dumas was ordered to report to Toulon, France in March 1798 for an unspecified assignment. He joined an enormous French armada massing there in preparation for departure to a secret destination. The armada departed on May 10, 1798, destination still unannounced. It was only on June 23, after the fleet had conquered Malta, that Napoleon announced that the mission's main purpose: to conquer Egypt. Aboard the Guillaume Tell, in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Dumas learned that he had been appointed as commander of all cavalry in the Army of the Orient. The armada arrived in the port of Alexandria at the end of June, and on July 3 Dumas led the Fourth Light Grenadiers over the walls as the French conquered the city. After the fighting, Napoleon sent Dumas to pay ransom to some Bedouins who had kidnapped French soldiers. The expedition's chief medical officer recounted in a memoir that local Egyptians, judging Dumas' height and build versus Napoleon's, believed Dumas to be in command. Seeing "him ride his horse over the trenches, going to ransom the prisoners, all of them believed that he was the leader of the Expedition."
From July 7 to 21, Dumas commanded the invading army's cavalry as it marched south from Alexandria to Cairo. Conditions of heat, thirst, fatigue, and lack of supplies for the troops on the desert march were harsh; there were a number of suicides. While camped in Damanhour, General Dumas met over watermelons with several other generals (Lannes, Desaix, and Murat). They vented criticisms of Napoleon's leadership and discussed the possibility of refusing to march beyond Cairo. Dumas soon participated in the Battle of the Pyramids (following which he chased retreating Mameluke horsemen) and the occupation of Cairo. At some point during the occupation, Napoleon learned of the earlier mutinous talk, and confronted Dumas. In his memoirs, Napoleon remembered threatening to shoot Dumas for sedition. Dumas requested leave to return to France, and Napoleon did not oppose it. Napoleon was reported to have said: "I can easily replace him with a brigadier."
Following the destruction of the French armada by a British fleet led by Horatio Nelson, however, Dumas was unable to get out of Egypt until March of the following year. In August 1798, Dumas discovered a significant cache of gold and jewels beneath a house in French-occupied Cairo, which he turned over to Napoleon. In October, he was instrumental in putting down an anti-French revolt in Cairo by charging into the Al-Azhar Mosque on horseback. Afterward (according to his son's account, drawn largely from the memories of Dumas's aide-de-camp Dermoncourt), Napoleon told him: "I shall have a painting made of the taking of the Grand Mosque. Dumas, you have already posed as the central figure." The Girodet painting, however, which Napoleon commissioned eleven years later, shows a white man charging into the mosque.
On March 7, 1799, Dumas boarded a small ship called the Belle Maltaise in the company of his fellow General Jean-Baptiste Manscourt du Rozoy, the geologist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu, forty wounded French soldiers, and a number of Maltese and Genoan civilians. Dumas had sold the furnishings of his quarters in Cairo, and purchased 4,000 pounds of moka coffee; eleven Arabian horses (two stallions and nine mares) to establish breeding stock in France; and hired the ship.
While returning to France, the ship began to sink, and Dumas had to jettison much of his cargo. The ship was forced by storms to land at Taranto, in the Kingdom of Naples. Dumas and his companions expected to get a friendly reception, having heard that the Kingdom had been overthrown by the Parthenopean Republic. But that short-lived republic had succumbed to an internal uprising by a local force known as the Holy Faith Army, led by Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, in alliance with King Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples. He was at war with France.
The Holy Faith Army imprisoned Dumas and the rest of the passengers and confiscated most of their belongings. Early on in the captivity, Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo tried to trade Dumas for a Corsican adventurer named Boccheciampe, an imposter posing as Prince Francis, son of Ferdinand IV, in order to aid the Holy Faith movement. Boccheciampe had been captured by French forces north of the Neapolitan kingdom, shortly after he had visited the prisoners in Taranto, but Ruffo lost interest in a trade when he learned Boccheciampe had been killed by the French.
Dumas was malnourished and kept incommunicado for two years. By the time of his release, he was partially paralyzed, almost blind in one eye, had been deaf in one ear but recovered; his physique was broken. He believed his illnesses were caused by poisoning. During his imprisonment, he was aided by a secret local pro-French group, which brought him medicine and a book of remedies. In November 1799, Napoleon had returned to Paris and seized power. Dumas' wife lobbied his government for assistance in finding and rescuing her husband, to little result. Napoleon's forces, under the command of Dumas' fellow general Joachim Murat, eventually defeated Ferdinand IV's army and secured Dumas's release in March 1801.
Dumas made few political statements, but those he made suggest deeply felt republican beliefs. One month after the French National Convention abolished slavery (February 4, 1794), Dumas sent a message to troops under his command in the Army of the Alps:
"Your comrade, a soldier and General-in-Chief. . . . was born in a climate and among men for whom liberty also had charms, and who fought for it first. Sincere lover of liberty and equality, convinced that all free men are equals, he will be proud to march out before you, to aid you in your efforts, and the coalition of tyrants will learn that they are loathed equally by men of all colors."
In November 1792, stationed with the Black Legion in Amiens, Dumas married Marie-Louise Labouret in Villers-Cotterêts. She stayed in Villers-Cotterêts with her family during his military campaigns. Dumas bought a farm of 30 acres there. They had daughters Marie-Alexandrine (born September 10, 1794), Louise-Alexandrine (born 1796, died 1797), and a son, Alexandre Dumas, who became a prolific and notable author, with numerous successes in plays and especially adventure novels.
After he finally gained release in 1801, Dumas was not awarded "the pension normally allocated to the widows of generals" by the French government and he struggled to support his family after his return to France. He repeatedly wrote to Napoleon Bonaparte, seeking back-pay for his time lost in Taranto and a new commission in the military. He died of stomach cancer on 26 February 1806 in Villers-Cotterêts. At his death his son Alexandre was three years and seven months old. The boy, his sister, and his widowed mother were plunged into deeper poverty. Marie-Louise Labouret Dumas worked in a tobacconist's shop to make ends meet. For lack of funds, the young Alexandre Dumas was unable to get even a basic secondary education. Marie-Louise persistently lobbied the French government to be paid her military widow's pension. Marie-Louise and the young Alexandre blamed Napoleon Bonaparte's "implacable hatred" for their poverty.

Legacy and honors
Dumas' name is inscribed on the south wall of the Arc de Triomphe.
In 1913, a statue of General Dumas was erected in Place Malesherbes (now Place du Général Catroux) in Paris in Autumn 1912 after a long fundraising campaign spearheaded by Anatole France and Sarah Bernhardt. From the moment of its installation until some time after July 1913 the statue was covered by a shroud due to the difficulty of the numerous governmental agencies involved to reach agreement on the modalities of its official inauguration. It stood in Place Malesherbes for thirty years, alongside statues of Alexandre Dumas's descendants Alexandre Dumas, père (erected in 1883) and Alexandre Dumas, fils (erected in 1906), as well as one of Sarah Bernhardt. The Germans destroyed it in the winter of 1941-1942, and it has never been restored.
In 2009, a sculpture in his honor, made by Driss Sans-Arcidet, was erected in Paris, Place du Général Catroux (formerly Place Malesherbes). Representing broken slave shackles, it was unveiled on 4 April 2009. The critic Jean-Joël Brégeon has claimed that the symbolism of the statue was not appropriate because, apart from his noble upbringing, the general had never been a slave. Documents cited above, however, show that his father sold and then re-purchased Alexandre Dumas, disproving this claim. Dumas biographer Tom Reiss has suggested that the monument is inappropriate for other reasons: "In the race politics of twenty-first-century France, the statue of General Dumas had morphed into a symbolic monument to all the victims of French colonial slavery... There is still no monument in France commemorating the life of General Alexandre Dumas."
In April 2009, the writer Claude Ribbe started an internet petition, asking French President Nicolas Sarkozy to award General Dumas the Légion d'honneur. As of February 2014, the petition has gathered over 7100 signatories.


  1. The French Revolution was a revolt against the Black Rulers of France who have now been whitened out of History. General Dumas' Russian equivalent; General Abram Petrovitch is Aldo said to be a slave from Ethiopia. All these are 200 years of concealment of Europe's Black Past which began at least 45,000 years ago with the occupation of Europe by migrants from Africa.

  2. If possible, update the details of the securities in the Demat account.
    8) Other investments - Give details of the PPF account and folio numbers of other post office investments.
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    mention the amount and the date by when these are payable/receivable.
    10) Online 10 passwords - Though these are to be kept secret, keep a list for emergency reference. Mention the website, the online ID and the password.
    Keep this in mind - This information is to be kept secret and accessed only if the main breadwinner of the family has either died or is in a medical emergency.
    Make sure to update the information regularly. How often you do this depends on your convenience and the changes in investments.
    The information listed above is very basic. you may want to add more details of other assets along the same lines.
    You may want to make an online version of this information as well, but make sure it is on a secure site.

    Commemoration of 96th Birthday of Nelson Mandela
    Watch the YouTube video clip of Nelson Mandela's quotes featured in the Google doodle.2.14 mins v=skC0-yN5VEM
    Education Quote Nelson Mandela 0.40 secs
    Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa and Nobel Peace Prize winner, has died. During his long life, Mandela inspired countless individuals. Here is a collection of quotes that personify his spirit:
    1) "Difficulties break some men but make others. No axe is sharp enough to cut the soul of a sinner who keeps on trying, one armed with the hope that he will rise even in the end."
    2) "It always seems impossible until it's done."
    TIMELINE: The life of Nelson Mandela
    ON MANDELA: 'Everyone was in awe of him'
    3) "If I had my time over I would do the same again. So would any man who dares call himself a man."
    4) "I like friends who have independent minds because they tend to make you see problems from all angles."
    SOUTH AFRICANS ON MANDELA: 'He is the person who saved this country'
    5) "Real leaders must be ready to sacrifice all for the freedom of their people."
    6) "A fundamental concern for others in our individual and community lives would go a long way in making the world the better place we so passionately dreamt of."
    7) "Everyone can rise above their circumstances and achieve success if they are dedicated to and passionate about what they do."
    8) "Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world."
    PHOTOS: Nelson Mandela through the years
    9) "I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear."
    10) "For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others."

  3. which cannot be stopped by samaṇas or brahmins,devas,Māras,Brahmā or anyone in the world.’
    21) Having heard the cry of the Nimmānarati devas, the Paranimmitavasavatti devas proclaimed aloud:
    ‘At Varanasi, in the Deer Grove at Isipatana, the Bhagavā has set in motion the supreme Wheel of Dhamma,
    which cannot be stopped by samaṇas or brahmins,devas,Māras,Brahmā or anyone in the world.’
    22) Having heard the cry of the Paranimmitavasavatti devas, the brahmakāyika devas proclaimed aloud:
    ‘At Varanasi, in the Deer Grove at Isipatana, the Bhagavā has set in motion the supreme Wheel of Dhamma,
    which cannot be stopped by samaṇas or brahmins,devas,Māras,Brahmā or anyone in the world.’
    23) Thus in that moment, in that instant, the cry diffused up to Brahma·loka.
    And this ten thousandfold world system shook, quaked, and trembled,
    and a great, boundless radiance appeared in the world, surpassing the effulgence of the devas
    24) Then the Bhagavā uttered this udāna: ‘Koṇḍañña really understood! Koṇḍañña really understood!’
    And that is how āyasmā Koṇḍañña acquired the name ‘Aññāsi·Koṇḍañña’.
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  4. 11) "Nezadovoljstvo je kot pitje strup in potem upal, da se bo ubil svoje sovražnike."
    12) "Lead od zadaj - in pustiti, da drugi verjamejo, da so spredaj."
    13): "Ne me soditi po mojih uspehov, soditi me, koliko krat sem padel in dobil spet nazaj."
    14) "Sovražim rasni diskriminaciji, najbolj intenzivno in v vseh njenih pojavnih oblikah sem vse to borili v času mojega življenja;. Borim ga zdaj, in bo to storila do konca svojih dni."
    15) "dober vodja in dobro srce vedno fenomenalno kombinacija."

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  5. 1) "Težave prekinil nekaj moških, vendar se druge. Št ax je dovolj oster, da prestregla dušo grešnikom, ki se ohranja na težaven, eden oborožen z upanjem, da se bo dvignila tudi na koncu."
    2) »Vedno se zdi nemogoče, dokler ne bo končano."
    Čas: življenje Nelsona Mandele
    ON Mandele: "Vsi so bili v strah njega"
    3) "Če bi imel svoj ​​čas več kot jaz bi naredil še enkrat isto. Torej bi vsak človek, ki si upa sam poklical človek."
    4) "Všeč mi prijatelji, ki so neodvisne misli, saj se nagibajo, da se boste videti probleme iz vseh zornih kotov."
    Južnoafričani ON Mandele: "On je oseba, ki je rešil to državo"
    5) "Pravi voditelji morajo biti pripravljeni žrtvovati vse za svobodo svojega naroda."
    6) "bi temeljna skrb za druge v naših individualnih in družbenih življenju še dolgo pot pri oblikovanju svet boljši kraj smo tako strastno sanjali."
    7) "Vsakdo lahko dvigne nad njihovim razmeram in doseči uspeh, če so temu namenjeni in strastno o tem, kaj delajo."
    8) "Izobraževanje je najmočnejše orožje, ki ga lahko uporabite, da spremenite svet."
    FOTOGRAFIJE: Nelson Mandela je skozi leta
    9) "Naučil sem se, da pogum ni odsotnost strahu, ampak zmaga nad njim. Pogumen človek ni tisti, ki ne čutijo strah, temveč tisti, ki premaga ta strah."
    10) "Za biti svoboden ne le odvrgli posameznikovih verige, temveč živeti na način, ki spoštuje in krepi svobodo drugih."

  6. 1) Primarni dokumenti - Ti vključujejo vaše rojstvo, poroka potrdil, PAN izkaznico, potni list, osebno izkaznico in volilno kartico Aadhaar.
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    Spominska slovesnost ob 96. rojstnem dnevu Nelsona Mandele
    Gledanje YouTube video posnetek narekovajev Nelsona Mandele je izrazit v doodle.2.14 min Google v = skC0-yN5VEM
    Izobraževanje Quote Nelson Mandela 0,40 sekunde
    Nelson Mandela, nekdanji predsednik Južne Afrike in Nobelova nagrajenka za mir, je umrl. V svojem dolgem življenju, Mandela navdih neštetih posameznikov. Tukaj je zbirka citatov, ki poosebljajo njegov duh:

  7. 16) Potem ko je slišal krik dev zemlje, Cātumahārājika deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    17) Potem ko je slišal vpitje Cātumahārājika dev, Tāvatiṃsa deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    18) Ko je slišal vpitje Tāvatiṃsa dev, Yama deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    19) Potem ko je slišal vpitje Yama dev, Tusitā deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    20) Potem ko je slišal vpitje Tusitā dev, Nimmānarati deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    21) Potem ko je slišal vpitje Nimmānarati dev, Paranimmitavasavatti deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    22) Potem ko je slišal vpitje Paranimmitavasavatti dev, brahmakāyika deve zavzemanje na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "
    23) Tako je v tistem trenutku, v tistem trenutku, cry razpršena do Brahme · loka.
    In to deset tisočkrat svetovni sistem tresel, tresla in trepetala,
    in velika, brezmejna radiance pojavil na svetu, prekaša sijaj dev
    24) Nato Bhagavā izrekel to udāna: "Koṇḍañña zares razume! Koṇḍañña zares razume! "
    In to je, kako āyasmā Koṇḍañña pridobil ime "Aññāsi · Koṇḍañña".
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    10 Dokumenti za secure- pomembno za vse US-Naj te bistvene dokumente v mestu in o tem obvestiti vsaj enega družinskega člana
    tako da vaši dediči ne bi bilo treba teči od stebra bi objavili do dedovanja, kar je po vsej pravici njihovo.

  8. dukkha · nirodha ariyasacca je doživela ": v meni, v zvezi z
    Stvari nezaslišano pred oči, Nana, panna, vijjā, svetloba pojavila
    11) "No, to dukkha · nirodha · gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca je bil razvit ': v meni.
    V zvezi s stvarmi nezaslišano prej nastala oko, Nana nastala, panna nastala, vijjā nastala, svetloba pojavila.
    In tako dolgo, bhikkhus, kot je moj yathā · bhūtaṃ znanje in vizija teh
    Štiri ariyasaccas v teh dvanajstih načine triad ni bil povsem čist.
    ni trdila v Loki z dev, Maras, Brahmas, samaṇas in
    Brahmins, v tej generaciji s svojimi dev in ljudeh.
    Da so v celoti zbudila vrhovnega sammā · sambodhi.
    Toda, ko bhikkhus, moj yathā · bhūtaṃ znanje in vizija teh
    Štiri ariyasaccas v teh dvanajstih načine triad bil precej čista, sem
    v Loki s svojimi deve, Maras, Brahmas, samaṇas
    & Brahmins, v tem generacije s svojo dev in ljudi, da imajo
    celoti awakened.To
    Vrhovno sammā · sambodhi &
    znanje in vizija pojavila v meni moja vimutti je neodtujljiva, to je
    moja zadnja Jati, zdaj ni več bhava
    14) To je tisto, kar je rekel Bhagavā. Veseli, skupina petih bhikkhus odobren od Bhagavā besedami.

    In medtem ko je bila ta razstava, ki govori, da je nastal v āyasmā
    Koṇḍañña Dhamma oko, ki je brez strasti in nerjaveče:
    "Vse, ki ima naravo samudaya ima naravo nirodha".
    15) In ko Bhagavā sprožil volanom Dhammo ter deve zemlje razglasili na glas:
    "V Varanasi, v Deer Grove na Isipatana, Bhagavā je sprožil vrhovni Wheel of Dhammo,
    ki ga ni mogoče ustaviti z samaṇas ali brahmanov, dev, Maras, Brahma ali kdorkoli na svetu. "

  9. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

    - Določitev v gibanjem kolesa Dhamme -
    [Dhamma · cakka · pavattana]
    Facebook, Skype, Twitter prijazno
    Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta

    Tipitaka je 3 baskets.1) Košarica disciplini (Vinaja), 2)
    Diskurzi (Sutta) in 3) Ultimate doktrina (Abhidhamma) Pitakas.
    eno lahko zavedaš, kako zaznava nastane prvi in znanje potem, in
    kako nastanejo znanja prihaja iz izhajajo iz percepcije.
    3) Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta Dve skrajnosti ne bi smela biti sprejeta z enim, ki je tja prišla iz domačega življenja.

    1 predanost k hedonizmu KAMA kar je slabše, vulgarno. 2
    predanost samo-mrtvičenju, ki je dukkha, ki ji je odvzeta korist.
    Ta ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, sammā · diṭṭhi sammā · saṅkappa sammā · Vaca
    sammā · kammanta sammā · ājīva sammā · vāyāma sammā · sati sammā · samadhi.

    To je majjhima paṭipada, na katerega je Tathāgata prebuditi, proizvaja
    vida Nana in vodi k pomiritvi, da abhiñña, sambodhi,
    5) To je dukkha ariya · Sacca: Jati je dukkha,
    Jara je dukkha (bolezen je dukkha) Marana je dukkha, pripadnost
    Kaj je ne mara, je dukkha,
    Disociacija od tistega, kar je želel
    je dukkha, ne da bi dobili tisto, kar hoče, je dukkha; Skratka, pet
    upādāna'k'khandhas so dukkha.
    6) To je dukkha · samudaya
    ariya · Sacca: tanha vodi do ponovnega rojstva, ki je povezana z željo in
    užitek, najti veselje tu ali tam.
    To se pravi: združenje KAMA-tanha, bhava-tanha in vibhava-tanha.
    To je dukkha · nirodha ariya · Sacca: popolna virāga, nirodha,
    opuščanje in zapustili, emancipacije in svobode od tistega zelo tanha.
    8) To je dukkha · nirodha · gāminī paṭipada ariya · Sacca: just to ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga.

    To se pravi: sammā · diṭṭhi, sammā · saṅkappa, sammā · Vaca
    sammā · kammanta, sammā · ājīva, sammā · vāyāma, sammā · sati in sammā · samadhi.
    9) "No, to dukkha ariyasacca je, da je popolnoma
    znan ': v meni, v zvezi s stvarmi nezaslišano pred oči, Nana, panna,
    vijjā, svetloba pojavila.
    "No, to dukkha · samudaya ariyasacca
    so opustili ": v meni, v zvezi s stvarmi nezaslišano prej,
    oko, Nana, panna, vijjā, svetloba pojavila
    10) "zdaj, to

  10. 11) "xanaaq waa sida la cabo sun ka dibna rajeynaya cadaawayaashiinna aad la dili doonaa."
    12) "Lead ka danbe - kuwa kalena ha rumaysan inay tahay in hore."
    13) "Ha igu xukumi by guulaha aan, igu xukumi by inta jeer ee aan hoos u dhaceen waxayna tibaaxeen dib mar kale."
    14) "Waxaan takoorka isirka neceb ugu daran iyo in huriya, Aniga ayaa saas dhan dagaalamay intii aan nolosha;. Waxaan ku dagaalami hadda, oo sidaas samayn doonaa ilaa dhamaadka maalmahayga."
    15) "madaxa A fiican iyo qalbi wanaagsan oo mar walba waa la isku daro xoog badan."

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    13.Handicrafts / Photo xambaarta Items 14.Pooja 15.Savouries 16.All nooc oo articles House

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  11. Waxaad hubisaa in si joogto ah u cusbooneysiin macluumaadka. Sidee inta badan aad samayn taasi ku xiran tahay adiga kugu habboon iyo isbedel ee maalgelinta.
    Macluumaadka kor ku qoran waa mid aad u aasaasiga ah. aad rabto in aad ku darto faahfaahin dheeraad ah oo hanti kale oo waddada u khadadka isku mid ah.
    Laga yaabaa in aad rabto in aad sameyso version ah online macluumaadkan iyo sidoo, laakiin hubi in ay tahay on goob ammaan ah.

    Xuska of Birthday 96th of Nelson Mandela
    Daawo video YouTube ka clip oo lagasoo xigtay Nelson Mandela ayaa ciyaaray ee mins doodle.2.14 Google v = skC0-yN5VEM
    Waxbarashada Quote Nelson Mandela 0.40 secs
    Nelson Mandela, madaxweynihii hore ee South Africa iyo guusha Nobel Peace Prize, ayaa ku dhintay. Intii uu nolol dheer, Mandela oo waxyi ah shakhsiyaadka aan tiro lahayn. Halkan waxaa ah ururinta oo lagasoo xigtay in personify uu ruux:
    1) "Difficulties jebin ragga qaar laakiin dadka kale. No faaska waa xoog badan ku filan oo ay nafta dembi ah oo xajiya on isku dayaya jaray, mid ka mid hubaysan rajo ah inuu kici doono xataa dhammaadka."
    2) "Waxaa had iyo jeer u muuqataa wax aan macquul aheyn ilaa iyo uu dhaco."
    WAQTIGA: Nolosha ee Nelson Mandela
    ON Mandela: 'Qof kasta waxa uu ahaa isaga ha ka baqeen'
    3) "Haddii aan lahaa aan waqti badan aan mar kale isku soo samayn lahayd. Sidaas nin kasta oo isku daya wuxuu isu bixin lahaa nin."
    4) "Waxaan jeclaan saaxiibada qaba maskaxda madax banaan sababtoo ah waxay kallifaya in aad dhibaato ka xaglaha dhan ka eeg."
    Koonfur Afrika ON Mandela: 'Waxa uu yahay qofka dalkan badbaadiyey'
    5) "Waa in madaxda Real diyaar u ah inay allabari dhan xornimada dadka ay noqon."
    6) "walaac A aasaasiga ah ee dadka kale ee shaqsiga iyo bulshada noloshooda tegi lahaa waddo dheer ee samaynta dunida oo dhan meel ka fiican aanu si xamaasad leh ku riyoon jiray."
    7) "Qof kasta oo ku kici kara xaaladaha ay ku xusan iyo horumar gaarto haddii ay naga go'an tahay in oo dareen xoog leh oo ku saabsan waxa ay qabtaan."
    8) "Waxbarashadu waa hubka ugu awoodda badan oo aad isticmaali karto in la beddelo dunida oo dhan."
    PHOTOS: Nelson Mandela marayo sano ah
    9) "Waxaan bartay in geesinimada ma ahaa, cabsi la'aan, laakiin liibaan waxa ka badan. Ninka geesiga ah ma aha kii aysan u muuqan u baqin, Laakiinse kii adkaan guul cabsi in."

  12. 23) Sidaas awgeed daqiiqad in, in dagdag ah in, qayladeediina waxay u kacsanayd ilaa Brahma · loka.
    Markaasaa toban nidaamka adduun thousandfold gariiray, gariireen, oo gariiray,
    oo ah, nuur u ballaadhan weyn u muuqday adduunka, kana dhalaalka ee devas ah
    24) Markaas Bhagavā wuxuu ku hadlay udāna this: 'Koṇḍañña runtii fahmay! Koṇḍañña dhab ah loo fahmin! '
    Taasina waa sida Koṇḍañña āyasmā helay magaca 'Aññāsi · Koṇḍañña'.
    Twitter, Skype iyo Facebook saaxiibtinimo
    10 documents in secure- MUHIIM AH DHAMAAN OF US-Dhig waraaqaha muhiimka ah ee meesha iyo wargeliyo ugu yaraan hal xubin ka tirsan qoyska
    si dhaxla aad uma laha in ay ku maamulaan ka tiir to post to dhaxli waxa aan xaqa u kooda.
    1) documents Aasaasiga ah - waxaa ka mid ah dhalashada, shahaadada guurka, kaarka PAN, baasaboorka, kaarka aqoonsiga doorashada iyo kaadhka Aadhaar ah.
    Waxaa loo baahan doonaa marka hantida si dhaxla aad wareejinta.
    2) faahfaahinta Insurance - Ujeeddada caymiska nolosha laga adkaan doonaa haddii qoyskaaga waa in mugdi ah. Samee liis dhan siyaasadaha,
    xusay magaca caymisyada, tirada siyaasadda, wadaraha ceymiska ku jira iyo lasocodka ah.
    3) documents Pension - Haddii aad ku leedahay xisaabta NPS, sheegidda u account number iyo magacaabida faahfaahin.
    Sii tirada hawlgabka xisaabta la-shaqeeyahaaga.
    4) warqadaha Property - Dhamaan waraaqaha hantida la xiriira waa in hal meel. Haddii hantida la dayn Xifdi.
    Sheeg tirada xisaabta amaah iyo lacagta ugu dambeeyay aad u fiican. Haddii hantida uu caymis, sheegid caymiska siyaasadda.
    5) faahfaahinta akoonka bangiga - Samee liis ah xisaab bangi oo kala duwan, la siiyo magaca bangiga, tirsiga xisaabta,
    hannaankii iyo faahfaahinta magacaabista haysta.
    6) faahfaahinta labiska Bank - Sheeg magaca bangiga, tirada labiska, Habka lahaanshaha iyo halka ay fure u ah.
    Yeelo maguurtada ah ee alaabta lagu hayaa ee labiska iyo cusbooneysiin mar kasta oo aad u shaqeeyaan.
    7) faahfaahinta akoonka Demat - Sii magaca wehelkaaga depository, lambarka xisaabta Demat iyo faahfaahinta musharaxnimadiisa.
    Haddii ay suurtagal tahay, cusboonaysiiso faahfaahinta dammaanadeed ee koontada Demat.
    8) maalgelin kale - Sii faahfaahinta akoonka PPF iyo lambarada TPU ee maalgelin kale oo xafiiska boostada.
    Samee liis ah maalgelinta labada dhinac, sheegin tiro TPU, Habka lahaanshaha iyo faahfaahinta musharaxnimadiisa.
    9) Amaahda iyo helo waxyaabaha - Haddii aad qaadatay ama siiyo deyn gaarka loo leeyahay si ay qaraabo ama saaxiib,
    shegaynaa kuwa lacagta iyo taariikhda by marka waa laga bixinayo / karta.
    10) Online 10 sirta ah - xataa hadday yihiin in lagu hayo qarsoodi ah, sii liiska tixraac degdeg ah. Sheeg website-ka, ID online-ka iyo password ah.
    Tan hayso ee maskaxda - Macluumaadkan waa in ay noqdaan kuwo qarsoodi iyo gelay oo kaliya haddii walalihii ugu weyn ee qoyska ayaa ku dhinteen ama waa in xaalad degdeg ah oo caafimaad.

  13. 15) Oo markay Bhagavā ka dhigay in mooshin Wheel ee odhaahda, ee devas ee dhulka kor u naadiyey:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    16) Ka dib markaan maqlay oohintii reer devas dhulka, Cātumahārājika ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    17) markii ay maqleen qaylada devas Cātumahārājika ah, Tāvatiṃsa ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    18) markii ay maqleen qaylada devas Tāvatiṃsa ah, Yāma ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    19) markii ay maqleen qaylada devas Yāma ah, Tusitā ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    20) markii ay maqleen qaylada devas Tusitā ah, Nimmānarati ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    21) markii ay maqleen qaylada devas Nimmānarati ah, Paranimmitavasavatti ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '
    22) markii ay maqleen qaylada devas Paranimmitavasavatti ah, brahmakāyika ee devas kor u lasoo:
    "Ugu Varanasi, in Grove Deer ee Isipatana, Bhagavā ayaa lagu wadaa in mooshin Wheel ugu sarreeya odhaahda,
    taas oo aan la joojin karo samaṇas ama brahmins, devas, Māras, Brahmā ama qof kale ee adduunka. '

  14. Tani waa dukkha ah · ariya nirodha · sacca: virāga oo dhamaystiran, nirodha,
    tagayaan, ka tageen, xorayn iyo xorriyadda ka in aad taṇhā.
    8) Tani waa dukkha ah · nirodha · Gamini ariya paṭipada · sacca: kaliya ariya this aṭṭhaṅgika magga.

    Taasi micnaheedu waa in: sammā · diṭṭhi, sammā · saṅkappa, sammā · Veca
    sammā · kammanta, sammā · ājīva, sammā · vāyāma, sammā · Sati iyo sammā · samādhi.
    9) 'Hadda, ariyasacca dukkha waxa weeye in gabi ahaanba waxaa laga
    loo yaqaan ': iigu jirto, marka laga eego xagga wax loogu maqlin ka hor, ka indhaha, Nana, paññā,
    vijjā, iftiinka kacay.
    "Hadda, dukkha this · samudaya ariyasacca
    ayaa tagay ': iigu jirto, marka laga eego xagga wax loogu maqlin ka hor, ka
    indhaha, Nana, paññā, vijjā, iftiinka kacay
    10) "Hadda, this
    dukkha · nirodha ariyasacca ayaa la kulantay ': iigu in, iyadoo loo eegayo
    wax loogu maqlin ka hor, indhaha, Nana, paññā, vijjā, iftiinka kacay
    11) "Hadda, dukkha this · nirodha · Gamini paṭipadā ariyasacca ayaa la soo saaray ': ii ee.
    Marka loo eego wax loogu maqlin ka hor, isha kacay, Nana ka kacay, paññā ka kacay, vijjā ka kacay, iftiinka kacay.
    Oo sidaas daraaddeed dheer, bhikkhus, sida aan yathā · aqoonta bhūtaṃ iyo aragga oo ka mid ah
    afar ariyasaccas ah ee ka tirsan laba iyo toban siyaabood by triads ma uu iska saafi ah.
    ma sheegan in loka ee ay devas, Māras, Brahmās, samaṇas iyo
    brahmins, in qarnigan la devas iyo dadka.
    Si aad ah ayaa si buuxda u soo toosay in sammā ugu sarreeya · sambodhi.
    Laakiin markii, bhikkhus, aan yathā · bhūtaṃ aqoon & aragti ah kuwan
    afar ariyasaccas ah ee ka tirsan laba iyo toban siyaabood by triads uu iska saafi ah, oo aan
    in loka la devas, Māras, Brahmās, samaṇas ay
    & Brahmins, in qarnigan ay devas & dadka, si ay u leeyihiin
    si buuxda awakened.To ah
    Sammā Sare · sambodhi & ah
    aqoon & aragtida kacay ii in: i vimutti waa xusuus, tani waa
    aan jāti hore, haatan ma jiraan wax bhava dheeraad ah
    14) Tani waa waxa Bhagavā ku sheegay. Farxay, koox ka mid ah shan bhikkhus ansixiyey ee erayada Bhagavā ee.

    Markaasaa halka Quraankuna this la hadlay, waxaa kacay in āyasmā
    Koṇḍañña isha saaray odhaahda ah taas oo lacag la'aan ah ka soo laabadka iyo macdan:
    'In uu leeyahay nooca samudaya dhan uu leeyahay nooca nirodha'.

  15. "Vijay Prakash-Sanyuttanikaye Arya-Sacchani", duubo codka
    Maamulo by: Times Music India
    >> Sutta Piṭaka >>
    Saṃyutta Nikāya >> Sacca Saṃyutta
    SN 56.11 (S v 420)
    Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

    - Dhacna Motion ee Wheel ee odhaahda -
    [Odhaahda · cakka · pavattana]
    Facebook, Skype, Twitter saaxiibtinimo
    Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta

    Tipitaka waa of 3 baskets.1) Basket Anshaxa (Vinaya), 2) ee
    Doodda (Sutta) & 3) ee Ultimate waxbaridda (Abhidhamma) Pitakas.
    hal gaari karayn sida aragtida ugu horeysay soo baxdo, iyo aqoonta ka dib, iyo
    sida ka soo baxaya ee aqoonta ka timaada ka soo baxaya ee aragtida.
    3) dhinacada Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta -Laba waa in aan lagu ansixiyay Ruux ayaa soo baxay ka soo nolosha guriga.

    1 kaliyeeli ayaa si hedonism dhinaca Kama, taas oo ah heer hoose ah, aflegaado ah. 2
    kaliyeeli inay is-mortification, taas oo dukkha loo diidey lacagta.
    Tani ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, sammā · diṭṭhi sammā · saṅkappa sammā · Veca
    sammā · kammanta sammā · ājīva sammā · vāyāma sammā · Sati sammā · samādhi.

    Tani, waa paṭipada majjhima in taas Tathāgata uu toosin, keenta
    aragtida Nana, & fiilooyin si appeasement, si abhiñña, sambodhi,
    5) Tani waa ariya dukkha · sacca: jāti waa dukkha,
    jarā waa dukkha (jirrada waa dukkha) ka dhacaya waa dukkha, ururka la
    waxa Naceen waa dukkha,
    Dissociation waxa la liked
    waa dukkha, ma si aad u hesho waxa ka mid doonayo waa dukkha; Marka la soo koobo, shan ah
    upādāna'k'khandhas waa dukkha.
    6) Tani waa dukkha · samudaya
    ariya · sacca: taṇhā keentay inay dib u dhalasho, ku xiran rabitaanka &
    raaxo ah, helitaanka ugu faraxsan halkan ama halkaas.
    Taasi micnaheedu waa in: Kama-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā iyo vibhava-taṇhā.

  16. 70) Qadiimiga ah Spain

    ONLINE BILAASH E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
    Fadlan ka abaalmarin turjumidda saxda ah ee afkooda hooyo iyo dhammaan luqadaha kale iyo dacaayad u ah iyo kuwo kale oo farxad

    Xayndaabkan in Motion ee Wheel ee odhaahda la dhawrayo dhammaan Nations toosay ee ay ka mid yihiin Mahabodhi, Bengaluru.
    Taliyayaasha nacayb Tani PRA Buddha Baharth ee marna arkay Dhammacakkapavattana, inkasta oo calaamad Ashoka waa la wheel this.
    fadlan la daawado: articles / 559506/20140718 / xigashooyin-youtube.htm Google chicchirichììì Nelson-mandela- #. U8hkGqh4jUo
    South Madaxweynihii hore ee Afrika Nelson Mandela ayaa heysta koobka Jules Rimet World Capetown Archbishop Desmond Tutu agtiisa, xarunta FIFA ee magaalada Zurich on May15, 2004 (Photo: Franck Fife, AFP)

  17. 69) Classical Somali

    FREE ONLINE E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

    Please render correct translation in your own mother tongue

    1956 - Baba Saheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar father of our Constitution Revives Buddhism, spearheads Buddhist movement

    1959 - Tibetans find a home in this Country Jambudvipa i.e., Prabuddha Bharath


  18. 69) Qadiimiga Somali

    ONLINE BILAASH E-Nālanda Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

    Fadlan ka abaalmarin turjumidda saxda ah ee afkooda hooyo
    ALL NOOSHAHAY dheeraado!
    ALL guudo IYO DADKA AAN guudo dadkuba laga yaabaa EE WELIGOOD KU QANACSANAYN!
    Maskax lahow WITH CLEAR faham IN
    WAX KASTA badalayaan!
    Si loo gaaro Naciima weligeed goolkii FINAL!

    1956 - Baba Saheb Dr.BRAmbedkar Aabbaha Dastuurka nooleeyo Budhisim isku baraan, dhaqdhaqaaqa Buddhist

    1959 - Tibetans hesho guri in this Country Jambudvipa ie, Prabuddha Bharath

    MAY amarka CJI doorasho cusub Parlamanka BY
    Caari ah dawladdu soo bandhigaysaa ilaa ALL THE DUBA KOR (FRAUD) EVMS kuwa TAMPERABLE WAA bedelay nacas HABKA DOORASHADA CADDAYN!
    IN LAGU JOOJIYO DHIIG dimuqraadiyadda
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    99% midoobaan EE SARVJAN HITAYE SARVJAN SUKHAYE ie, macaawino, nabad iyo farxad OF ALL bulshooyinka
    KU JIRO SC / gebagaboobaya / OBCs / BEELAHA LAGA TIRADA BADAN / XUN BRAHMINS kala qoqobaya SARE
    LIDKA 1% CHITPAWANS OF RSS ee Subulahanewscom WHO WAA AWOODA hunguri FULL nacayb, CARADA, masayr, taasi waa nijaas OF MIND, taas oo waalli BAAHAN MASKAXDA EE DAAWAYNTA IN MASKAXDA DOONKA